Critical Minerals ( Penalty Elements) from
Mine to Metal in the Copper Supply Chain

Zoom Webinar – May 14, 2021 – 1pm Mountain Time

This graphical abstract that describes what the talk will entail.


In 2018, the United States identified thirty-five critical minerals due to concerns regarding supply risk and their importance to the nation’s economy and defense. This presentation will examine the deportment and production potential of five “critical minerals” (selenium, tellurium, arsenic, antimony and bismuth) in the copper pyrometallurgical supply chain from mine to metal. Potential areas for future investigation and investment will be discussed to increase the recovery of these critical minerals from the existing copper supply chain.


Michael Moats is a Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. He is also the Director of the Thomas J. O’Keefe Institute for the Sustainable Supply of Strategic Minerals. Prof. Moats is an extractive metallurgist with over 100 publications in the fields of hydro- and electrometallurgy. In 2018, he received the AIME James Douglas Gold Medal “for his knowledge and contributions in the field of electrometallurgy”. Dr. Moats serves as the project leader for AMIRA’s P705D base metal electrowinning project, facilitator for an international consortium of eight copper refineries, and team leader for the surveying of copper electrorefineries for the triennial world Copper meetings.

Video | Slides